Category Archives: Classic

How much do you know about the Alfa Romeo Spider 1750/2000

Among the famous convertible cars, both Spider 1750 and 2000 belonged to the 105 series. They were the executive cars manufactured by an Italian named Alfa Romeo. Berlina 1750 came with 1.8 liters, twin cam inline-four engines and built between 1968 and 1977. Later on, it phased out for the improved Berlina 2000 with 2.0 liters, twin cam inline-four engines.

alfa-romeo-spider-1750-2000

The Spider 1750 Alfa Romeo:

The 1750 Berlina’s design was heavily drawn from the existing Giulia saloon. Alfa Romeo expected it to be in the top saloon range as this one was ranged above 1300 cc and 1600 cc versions of Giulia. Soon, the Spider 1750 – Alfa Romeo replaced the Giulia.

There was immense bodywork that went into the Alfa Romeo Spider 1750 . It had a bigger body shell with a longer wheelbase and bigger engine for tough roads. The external panels were revised. However, several of its internal parts were concurrent with different Alfa Romeo models. If you look at the windscreen of Spider 1750/200 then was similar to the Giulia. No matter how much it resembled the Giulia, it did have significant changes and lot of trimmed details. Interestingly, in the beginning of its production only fewer units were sold.

The 1750 bodyshell had a longer wheelbase than the Giulia, and revised external panels, but it shared many of the same internal panels. The windscreen was also the same. The revisions were carried out by Bertone, and while it resembled the Giulia some of that vehicle’s distinctive creases were smoothed out, and there were significant changes to the trim details.

This roadster had a hydraulic clutch, 2 twin side draught carburetors, and 1779 cc twin-carb engine. Its 1.8 liters engine gave it a monstrous speed of 116 hp. In order to cater to the US market, the 1750 Spider was fitted with the SPICA fuel injection.

The Spider 2000 Alfa Romeo:

The production of Alfa Romeo Spider 2000  picked up between 1971 and 1977. It had engine and board similar to the Spider 1750 but a little spiked up. It stroked out to almost 1962 cc. The external lights varied among the different 2000 models. Additionally, it had a 5¾-inch diameter in all the four positions of its outboard headlights. The design for the taillights was relatively simpler.

Alfa Romeo Spider 2000 had 2 carburetors and a 2 liters twin cam engine to produce a whopping speed of 130 hp. This convertible was celebrated for its 200 km/h speed with an acceleration pickup of just 9 seconds. The model designed for the USA had mechanical fuel injection.

Both the Spider 1750/2000Alfa Romeo were in their individual capacities one of the popular roadsters. Every element in each of the cars was carefully planned and details were taken care of during the execution. It was like the manufacturer did not build some ordinary convertibles but masterpieces.

Read also: Story of  Giulietta Spider

Options in Giulietta Spider – Alfa Romeo

True Alfa Romeo lovers would know that Giulietta Spider – Alfa Romeo comes in variations. While each one is a collectible, there are so many to pick from. By now you must be wondering, what have you been missing? You read it right, there are more than 30 convertible cars to choose from in this category. Here is all the information about the variations in Alfa Romeo.

Giulietta Spider

1957 Alfa Romeo:

This pretty little car looks like it has stepped out of a historic rally. Manufactured in the year 1957, this coupe has its interiors revived and restored to an extent so that it does not lose its classic charm. It was the company’s first hand at monocoque design. It had 1900-cc inline four engine which produced power like the engines in racer cars would produce. Later on, it was downsized to the 1290-cc engine that generated 80bhp.

1958 Giulietta Spider – Alfa Romeo:

This convertible roadster is available in variations. It displayed excellence in terms of design and the speed. Right from the upholstery to the engine, every little detail of this car was perfectly worked. This Spider came with an up-rated engine with healthy carburettors. It had a brake horsepower of 90, which is 10 times more than the regular engine. The Alfa Romeo 1985 is known among all the roadsters as the best performing coupe.

1959 Alfa Romeo:

The 1959 Alfa Romeo came in limited 101pieces only. It came with nice detailing to the interiors. One look at the convertible and you can easily make out that it is a pure beauty crafted by a genius. When it comes to engine and performance, it lives up to the name of the Giulietta Spider Alfa Romeo. It purely belongs in the category of the legendary cars that many people covet.

1960 Giulietta Spider:

There can be no pretty convertible like this Giulietta Spider – Alfa Romeo. Its exterior begins with a flawless design and ends with a two-tone cabin in the interior. This car runs smoothly if the oil pressure and the temperature are good. It is light, and changing gears is smooth, easy and fun. Only few selected stores are known to deck this rare beauty.

1961 Version of Alfa Romeo:

It is rare to find this piece in its original make. Some have be repainted to revive the masterpiece. While some needed technical revisions. This two seater was once upon time every riders dreams. The exterior of this coupe has fine lines as it followed after so many Alfa Romeos.

The 1962 and 1963 versions of the Giulietta Spider were equally popular as their ancestors. It was the dynamic exteriors that came with a highly stylized body, comfortable and ergonomic interiors with highly efficient mechanics, that made each convertible special and coveted. You will find these coupes on sale. Each one of them is a fun to drive and will certainly be an amazing addition to your garage collection.

 

From Cobra 427 AC to New

In 2014, Shelby announced to come out with a limited edition 50th anniversary Cobra 427 AC. There are very rare masterpieces from the convertible cars section that you would be proud to own as your collectible. This one certainly makes to the list of the convertible lovers. The majority of the petrol heads are well aware of the magical creation of Carroll Shelby’s big block Cobra that was launched in the year 1965. What’s more exciting was that the announcement that there will be 50 such iconic pieces.Cobra 427 AC

The Cobra 427-AC Then:

Many years ago, the British grand touring car manufacturers were able to build one of their best cars with an amazing mileage. It was known to accelerate from 0-100 mph. Furthermore, it braked completely in less than 25 seconds. People found it to be very impressive in the beginning. However, soon with the automotive development and major transformations in the velocity, the convertibles witnessed amazing shift.

It is indeed unbelievable that this convertible could brake at 14.5-seconds and could easily accelerate up to 100 miles per hour. In the meantime, Shelby made sure to keep up with the standards that the convertible had already set until he comes up with something plusher than Cobra. That meant beating some of the best cars that had high water mark when it came to performance.

For a long time, the 427 Cobra was known to accelerate and decelerate at godly rates. What was more magical was that this civilized car had a new and all-independent suspension system. In the post-war years, the leaf springs and lower wishbones were coupled with the flexible frame. This supported the suspension system even better.

The Cobra 427 AC Now:

Each of the 50 pieces of this roadster that were set out to sell was painted in Guardsmen Blue and Wimbledon White Stripes. They come equipped with a premium black leather for the interiors along with some other highlights. It made its debut in Scottsdale, Arizona at its major Barret-Jackson Auction in January 2015.

One thing is for sure the way the world looked at convertibles drastically changed with the big block Shelby’s Cobra. The people appreciated small block cars, however, Cobra was FE-powered and it simply took the convertibles to a new level. It was not just powerful in its performance but highly sophisticated in its look. Shelby’s dream to carve the first hypercar of the world actualized with Cobra.

The recent Cobras are a modern take on the big block Cobras. With a new coil spring independent suspension, it is known to give better comfort and a smooth drive. It comes with a larger passenger compartment for ergonomically leisurely seating. The upgraded brakes, fatter tires, and wider tracks simply ensured that there is nothing amiss in the new Cobra from the older Cobra

If you look at both the versions, you will find each in its own a purest expression. Shelby’s vision certainly transformed the regular convertible into a high-performance car. If you are planning to invest in this roadster, then do not lose a moment to think and get your limited edition Cobra 427 AC.

Fresh Face For The Convertibles – Austin a90 Atlantic

Produced by the Austin Motor Company, Austin a90 Atlantic saw glory between 1949 and 1952. It was launched as a simple 4 seater convertible car at the Earls Court Motor Show – London in 1948. There were several models built in the meantime that hit the markets. The most popular model in the convertible cars that this company built was the 2-door coupé – A90 Atlantic Sports Saloon.

What made the Austin a90 Atlantic so special?

Austin a90 Atlantic

Right from the Scratch:

It was the Atlantic that was designed and built right from the scratch. The majority of the post-war cars were styled based on their old models. But this one was a thumbnail sketch by the Chairman of AustinLeonard Lord. Though there were slight similarities in the styling of Austin A90 Atlantic  with that model of the Italian Austin stylist Dick Burzi.

Few Inspirations:

Furthermore, the car came with a design that was inspired by Pininfarina Alfa Romeo cabriolet [1946]. It just happened to reach the Longbridge factory, around mid-1947. Around this time, the government back then came up with an edict – ‘Export or die’, under this the steel was reserved only for those who generated the money. This is why the Atlantic was designed to appeal and woo the North American tastes.

The Body:

Upon popular demand, the Austin a90 Atlantic was designed with a bonnet that looked somewhat like the Pontiac Chieftains who reigned in those times. What made this convertible one of its kind was all those little details. There was a wrap around the windscreen that was made of a flat glass section. It had curved end panels. The fenders in this convertible had twin ‘Flying A’ that swept down to its rounded tail. What the sports car and convertible car lovers like about this car were the spats that enclosed its rear wheels.

The Novelty:

The Atlantic Austin came with a centre mounting, main beam and a headlight which was built in a letter box style. This way the grille could breathe in some air. Hydraulically powered windows were a novel concept back then. But this convertible had not just the windows but also the hood hydraulically automated.

Bold Colors:

To reiterate, this car was a pure delight as it had everything new and unique to it. When the convertibles came with trafficators, this one had flashing indicators or the blinkers. To add to its charm, it made use of interesting colors and named the cars as ‘desert gold’, ‘seafoam green’ etc. Even though the bold metallics found itself a limited market in the UK, it did well overall.

Austin a90 Atlantic Interior

It was the A90 Atlantic which made a radical and bold attempt to venture into the lucrative yet and critical US market. This car was available to the car connoisseurs as a convertible as well as a saloon. The unique make and unusual features like the headlamp, ‘cyclops’, wind-down rear window, rear-view mirror, handle near the driver etc made it the most loved convertible of all times!

The newness of Hurricane DHC – Armstrong Siddeley in convertible cars

Founded in 1919, Armstrong Siddeley was a perfect combination of the skills of an aircraft maker (Armstrong Whitworth) and an upmarket car maker (Siddeley Deasy). Their joint venture earned respect in the UK and they received appreciation to be the respected manufacturers of the convertible cars. Around the 1930s and 1940s they were popular for coming up with innovative and quality cars. Hurricane DHC – Armstrong Siddeley was one of their well-equipped luxury cars that had an edgy design over the overtly sporting cars.

Hurricane DHC

Tactic to take on the Markets:

What majority of the manufacturers did back then was to re-launch all their pre-war models post the World War II. However, Armstrong and Siddeley had a different take on this approach. They quietly worked on the 16hp range and launched the Hurricane DHC – Armstrong Siddeley by May-1945. After that, they did come up with Lancaster saloon version; Tempest, Typhoon and Whitley, but the Hurricane DHC gave them the memories of their lifetime.

Features of Hurricane DHC – Armstrong Siddeley:

  • Unlike the other convertible cars, this one was a stylish 4 to 5 seater, with three position drophead coupe.
  • It had a developed version of 1991cc 70bhp overhead valve six. This gave the car an incredible speed of 75mph.
  • Hurricane came with an independent front suspension which was introduced in the cars by Armstrong Siddeley.
  • This car featured Girling hydro-mechanical brakes and traditional four-speed synchromesh transmissions.
  • Hurricane was absolutely an in-house production which used steel and aluminium panels over the wooden frame.
  • The car performed neatly at all times and offered a rattle free ride with its reassuring powerful brakes.

Along with the Hurricane, they continued to build Typhoon, Tempest, Lancaster etc. Out of them, it was Hurricane that managed to sell 2,606 pieces. Hurricane DHC – Armstrong Siddeley was largely popular for its beautiful design and smooth drive. It would smoothly cruise at 60mph. The best part of this car was that it would have excellent oil pressure as well as the temperature at a majority of the times.

Things to check while buying this rare beauty:

There is no greater joy in this world for a car fanatic than to own a classic and drive it leisurely. But when it comes to buying you need to be careful about certain pointers:

  • It is needless to say that the car has to be in a good condition.
  • It should ideally have a spare wheel along with a wheel changing kit.
  • The vendor must have kept a record of its usage and maintenance history (Right from the date of manufacture till date).
  • Check specifically for the maintenance manual.
  • Take a close look at the odometer that displays the miles to get a rough idea of how long and how far the car has been used.
  • Seek for the permission and get a small test ride. You would know if it drives as excellent as it looks.

Around 1953, the production of the 16hp and18hp ranged convertibles ceased. However, it was 1960 that witnessed a total shutdown in car production of the Hurricane DHC – Armstrong Siddeley. It was because Armstrong went back to concentrate on what he was best at doing – aero engines.

Making of Alvis TA14 Drophead Coupe’

Alvis recommended the production of his convertible cars after World War II. However, the cars that he created had several alterations. It was in 1938 that the first TA14 Drophead Coupe – Alvis was introduced. The most apparent difference that every convertible fan noticed was the steel disc wheels instead of the wires. However, there were several other ambitious attempts that Alvis made.

TA14 Drophead Coupe’ – Alvis
TA14 Drophead Coupe’ – Alvis

Transformations:

The TA14 had a simple and separate chassis design, which was powered by a four-cylinder engine of about 1,892cc with an overhead-valve. Used in heavy duty trucks, it had a beam axle front suspension making it space efficient as well as cuts down the cost of production. Mechanical brakes offered an efficient solution as compared to the modern day hydraulic brakes. This innovative model came with a gearbox and it was a synchromesh four-speeder.

With already 65bhp available in the market, the TA14 had an all impressive 75mph. There were 3 body styles that Alvis thought of:

  1. i) sports saloon
  2. ii) drophead coupés – Carbodies

iii) drophead coupés Tickford

New Version:

Alvis came up with an attractive car in 1946. Known for its exuberant performance and sure-footedness it strutted on the road like an elite piece. It was known for its impeccable refinement that made even the critics go all praises. This beauty steered smoothly and made the person behind the wheels in total control. Every person who owned felt perfect on the road.

It was the suspension that made this car comfortable and easy to control. However, it was the engine that ran smooth and quietly. This car came with excellent tractability and brilliantly well-spaced gear ratios. Not to mention the brakes that kept its high standards. All in all, this car received appreciation for putting in a high level of excellence and setting a high benchmark for the convertibles.

Vendor Advice:

The Tickford-bodied TA14 drophead coupé was bought about 19 years back for restoration. This car was then stripped down. After working on its engine, it was then repainted. Soon, this car was pushed into storage for about 17 years. The vendor got this beauty out and restored to usable condition.

This car appealed to the mid-sized luxury car seekers as well as executive car sized. It came in 4-door sedan and was manufactured up to 1950.

In 1950, Alvis introduced a new chassis along with a 3.0-liter inline-six. It was picked up by later stylish models especially the TA21 saloon. Many coachbuilders that Alvis used could not survive the war, which included Mulliners. Later the Tickford – TC21 dropheads models were acquired by Aston Martin and Standard-Triumph.

Alvis collaborated with Hermann Graber from Switzerland to develop customized Alvis chassis. It was catered only to the wealthy Swiss class in the early 50’s. This is how the Alvis TA14 Drophead coupe paved a way for TD21.

Little Known Facts about K3 Allard!

Carroll Shelby celebrated creating a lightweight British roadster from American V8 and making the famous AC Cobra. It was this car that turned out to be the most popular and stand out amongst all the convertible cars that the 20th century got to witness. However, there was an unknown and unseen contribution of the K3-Allards. Much before the first Cobra was built around 1962; Carroll already had an Allard K3 Roadster.

Allard’s Background:

The impact that this car had on Carroll was undeniable. It is sad that the interesting history of K3 Allard is lost. However, it had such a lasting effect that it transformed the entire game for the convertibles. Sydney Allard established the Allard Motor Company Ltd in 1945. He was pure creative genius and an honest racer with visionary engineering instincts. This is why you will find that they came up with interesting vehicles that took any of the first three slots in major events and races.

Export and Transformation:

The Allard K3 was the model based on the original K1 and K2. It was initially a British chassis which was exported to USA. The owner then fitted engine of his own preference in it. If you look at them, majority of them come fitted with the Cadillac engines. However, there were around 57 cars which were fitted with Chrysler Hemi V8 for better performance.

The Body and Engine:

Allard K3 Roadster

The K3 Allard was lightweight as it had an alloy body, which coupled with a swing axle at the front. This axle was a semi-independent. Apart from that it had de Dion-type rear axle suspension for an exceptional handling grip and strength to the driver. Furthermore, it had the Hemi V8 with the dual 4-barrel carburetors.

Allard K3 Roadster Engine

The engine was mated to a 4-speed manual transmission. Allard K3 owes its unique look and overall performance to all of these little creative transformations.

Allard K3 Roadster interior

The Bygone Era:

Allard K3 was built around 1952 to 1956. The process and the period were painstaking as the beauty was crafted with hands. This is why buyers often found some variation in each of the models that were released in different years. Sydney Allard could not match the standards with the British car makers, which is why he could produce only 62 units of convertibles.

Current Pricing:

Surprisingly the Allard K3s would not cost anywhere near to the AC Cobra convertibles that have been ruling the scene. If you intend to buy the K3, it would be around $100,000 to $150,000 and not more than that. However, such classic convertibles are sold through auctions and this fluctuate the prices.

Where to find?

You can register yourself at various online auctions to know about all the classic convertibles up for sale. There are several convertible collectors who stock up such cars and put up for sale.pportunities to hunt for the right car dealers online and grab the car of your dream!

Opportunities to hunt for the right car dealers online and grab the car of your dream!

Amazing Journey of L/M Allard M1 Convertible!

When there was a rage for convertible cars with the engine of sports cars, Englishman Sydney Allard decided to create innovative machines that were made from low-cost Ford hardware. He launched his first car in 1934 Tourist Trophy. It was a four seater Ford. Allard had shortened its wheelbase. Being an expert in convertibles, he fitted the bodywork of the car with an old Grand Prix Bugatti.

L/M-Allard M1

Dramatic Entry:

Initially,Allard kept the few cars he made for himself. Soon he opened the gates and started selling them to the car enthusiasts in 1946. Around 1947, he launched M1 Drophead Coupe after the war. This model had a substantial amount of work done on its body. With the full length doors and a smart folding convertible top, it mesmerized all the car lovers.

The Bodywork:

L:M-Allard M1 bodywork

Allard models were known to round off the civilized M1 as they came with comfortable seating for four. It had elaborate trim than the regular models that were more competition oriented. Other cars couldn’t match its design that could easily accommodate 3.6-liter Ford V-8. The gears were impressive as they were selected from the column shifter that Allard had procured from the England’s V-8 Pilot Ford model.

Success:

Allard

It is needless to say that the M1 was successful. Allard had produced around 500 such models in a short span of 4 years. This encouraged Allard to move swiftly towards designing bolder convertibles for public. Soon, he came up with strong and aggressive models like the J2, J2X, J2R and K1. However, the fact always remained that M1 was always been the Allard’s cornerstone model. It contributed to about 25% of total production out of the 1900 cars (approximately) that were operated in those years.

Recent Purchase:

L-M-Allard M1 engine

The classic Allard M1 model was bought in September 2006. It had black finish that teamed up with its top and upholstery. This model had Smiths instruments and the most classic and un-restored steering wheel of Bluemels “Brooklands”. To add further, it had “flathead” Ford V-8 engine that drove the car lovers crazy.

Thinking that someone might have just fooled the buyer? Well, no! This model was accompanied with all the documents specific to it. There was an original document of the Engineer’s Instruction card that was issued by Adlards Motors, Ltd. Additionally, it had inspection report.

L:M-Allard M1 convertible

In true sense the owner has a fascinating early postwar sporting convertible car which is true example of Anglo-American ingenuity.

Cobra 260/289 AC: Into the History

DEVELOPMENT:

When you compare the Cobra 260/289-AC with the Ace or the Ace Bristol roadsters, it differed slightly in three areas. First is the basic chassis; second is the suspension; and third is its body design. Back then the supplies of the Bristol engines declined and Shelby approached AC to supply the engineless Aces.

Cobra 260:289 AC

Soon, the Ace was developed and the chassis was stiffened up. The overall pattern was similar to the Acecas model. It had a limited slip installed similar to the Salisbury final drive. Shelby did add some final and smaller grilled and broader wheel arches to support the wider tires. But he did not disturb the styling and let it be the same as Ace.

All the Shelby Cobras came with 4 wheel disc brakes. It was decided to have inboard rear brakes. But during production they opted for the outboard units. The Cobra 260/289-AC had a steering box was canted for the Ford engine. However, the suspension and steering geometry stayed the same with few changes here and there.

INSIDE OUT:

Shelby-Cobra-289-interior

The cars that arrived at the Shelby’s came in with the engines and gearboxes from California. It was the assembly that happened in the UK. This convertible was known for being lightweight engine and compact thinwall V-8. It was initially in the Ford’s Fairlane which was adopted in this one. Since the size of the original engine was 260 cubic inches, they could be fitted in the first 75 Cobras. There were additions of 4-speed Borg-Warner along with the engine.

The rest of the 51 cars had 289 cubic inch engine and fulfilled the FIA standards. It was pretty amazing that this model campaigned all through the Europe between 1964 and 1966. Interestingly, this model was successful in handling the expectations and racked up several victories and appreciations all over the continent.

THE NEW GENERATION:

Mark II, Shelby Cobras

Next to hit the roads were the Mark II, Shelby Cobras. They were built around 1963 and retained their original transverse spring Ace Chassis. This model had 289 engine but it featured the rack-and-pinion steering. This was a definite improvement that was appreciated by both the users and the critics. Precisely 528 cars were built and the old Ace chassis discontinued its production.

Initially it was decided that the Cobra was to be sold only for the U.S. however, it did not survive long. Around 1963 they had their first batch of right-hand-drive cars ready. But they only launched it towards the end 1964 in the British markets. Later they hit all over Europe and witnessed some success.

It was the 1965 that saw an end of Ace-chassis Cobra. Soon the company focused on producing the ferocious Cobra 427. It had an altogether new chassis and was dubbed as “Mark III.” But this small-block Cobra had only 27 like it and had to be terminated around 1968! Carroll Shelby produced his iconic 427 Cobra in the year 1967 and sold it in 1968.

Austin-Healey Sprite MK II/III/IV: Charm of the 60’s

Around 1962 to 1969 Austin-Healey Sprite gained popularity. It was famously known as the ‘Bugeye’. This low cost, tiny sports car received good attention from the people. This car was not only affordable but way too fun minus the frills. Interestingly designed body and its definitive engine gave a boost to the sales and made this car a sporting success. Around 50,000 cars which were the initial models of the Sprite MK II were sold in just 4 years. It was in 1962 that the Sprite MK II/ III/ IV – Austin Healey was introduced in the industry of convertible cars.

What was kept and what was let go?

MK II:

1963_Austin_Healey_Sprite_MK_II

While the MK II Sprite model retained the Bugeye’s body it underwent a major transformation. The Bugeye had a cheerful visage, but the Sprite had conventional grille with headlight. It stood out to be an amazingly styled car.

In the beginning, MK II initially had the 948-cc A-series 4-cylinder engines. However, around 1962, this model adopted the longer stroke 1098-cc version. This engine offered it a good power increase from the regular 46 bhp to the amazing 56 bhp. The car had an outright straight line speed. However, it was limited because of the engine of the car got displaced and it affected its performance and power.

MK III:

Austin-Healey Sprite MK III

Thankfully it was lightweight and had a low center. This made the car a terrific handler and Sprite earned its reputation in the world of convertibles as well as the rally circuit. It was in the year 1964, there were some serious of revisions made in the MK III Sprite. Its new curved windshield and roll up side windows drove the people crazy. The exterior handles and a reworked engine simply enhanced the life of this convertible.

MK IV:Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV

As time passed, the model saw several revisions from 3 additional bhp to larger main bearings, from rear suspension to headlights was updated and improved at the same time as well. It was MK IV Sprite that hit the markets in October 1966. This one had a notably new and a detuned 1275-cc engine which was used for the Mini Cooper S. The power output was pulled up by 65 bhp in the process.

Disappearance:

Soon, the production of the Healey cars was stopped for nearly two years. The dealer network dwindled especially in the US. They found it difficult to market one car under three brand names. It was challenging for the dealers. Additionally, the MG’s arbitrary success Sprite simply disappeared from the markets.

Reappearance:

Currently, the Sprites MK II / III / IV are available much cheaper than the Bugeye Sprites. They do offer the classic driving experience and open for bargains. Convertible purists would go for the Mk II Sprites. However, the practical-minded would love to have Mk IIIs or the Mk IVs. It is simply because these models come with weather protection built and a superior suspension setup. Any of the models come with easy and straightforward mechanicals. You will not have to struggle with their parts as they are easily available in the markets!